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Functional diagram Smoke pressure systems [SPS-system]
Article No.: 111115
What is SPS
Systems keep escape and emergency routes free from smoke
using pressure differences between adjacent rooms along the
emergency route. As the stairwell is the most important
escape route in the event of a fire, building regulations
specify that this area should be of an adequate length for
occupants and free from hazards.
- Functional diagram
Fire breaks out in a utilisation unit.
The door of the apartment is opened.
The users of the apartment that is filled with smoke escape
via the stairwell. Smoke or conflagration gases penetrate
the escape and emergency route.
Smoke detectors detect the fire and activate the pressure
differential system or a manual alarm is activated.
The regulating and control unit for the
system control centre responds.
The following functions run at the same time:
-> the air inlet fan takes in fresh air and transports it to the
escape and emergency route;
-> the drive at roof level opens the window fully.
Smoke that has entered the room up to that point
in time is discharged directly outside via the upward flow
of air. The air in the escape and rescue area is flushed
through with fresh outdoor air (flushing phase);
-> the alarm siren sounds and the flashing light flashes;
-> the door closers are disconnected from the
power supply and the doors close;
-> the vent switches are deactivated.
After the flushing phase, pressure regulation is activated
and this creates an overpressure.
As soon as the fire hazard has been removed,
the system can be reset to monitoring status.
All functions that are not safety-related are
deactivated after the alarm is triggered.
In the event of a mains power failure,
all the components required for the SPS system will be
supplied with power by the system's own emergency batteries.
The bridging time will be in accordance with local directives
and country-specific regulations. Naturally, the design
of such a facility forms part of our planning procedure.
The overpressure must remain within the framework
of statutory provisions. Only fresh air is used
to create the overpressure.
The pressure in the escape and rescue areas is
constantly compared with the atmospheric pressure
(by means of a differential pressure measurement).
That is because the pressure created within the stairwell
must not exceed certain limits. The reason for this
is that at all times during pressure generation,
the maximum pressure on door openers must not exceed
the pressure that weaker persons such as children or frail
persons can still overcome. At the same time,
the pressure created must be sufficient to prevent
smoke from flowing back into the stairwell,
regardless of how many doors are opened or closed.
Emergency routes remain free from smoke and can
therefore be accessed at all times.
Residents can be evacuated safely via smoke-free emergency
routes and fire-fighters can access the building easily.
Smoke pressure systems, manufacturer: STG-BEIKIRCH